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Aviation industry has grown rapidly since the first scheduled commercial aviation started publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing hundred years ago. There is a fast growth in the number of passengers, routes, and frequencies, with high revenues and low margins, which make this industry one of the most challenging businesses in the world. Every operator aims to undertake the minimum operating cost and gain profit as much as possible. During maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the maintenance cost that it needs to budget.

Previous works show that this calculation includes only costs that are publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing related to the maintenance process such homework writing help cost of labor, material, and publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. Some of previous works also discuss the existence of another cost throughout aircraft downtime, which is defined as cost of revenue loss. Nevertheless, research papers on mutual funds is not any standard model that shows how to define and publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing downtime cost.

For that reason, the purpose of publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing paper is to introduce a new model and analysis technique that can be used to calculate aircraft downtime cost due to maintenance. All machines, even the simplest ones, require maintenance after some defined periods of operation. Aircraft, which consists of different systems and structures, also has specific maintenance tasks that need to be performed to support its operation. As Gupta et al. Bazargan [ 2 ] also asserted that the objective of maintenance to yield safe essay on my homework airworthy aircraft makes it the foundation of successful aircraft management.

Hurst [ 3 ] stated that attaining the highest availability is the main objective of aircraft maintenance programs. Therefore, it is clear that maintenance programs have a very important role in the aviation industry. Maintenance programs help operators to reach important objectives such as safety, airworthiness, and high availability. Authorities require the operators to maintain their aircraft because it deals with the safety of many people. Furthermore, proper maintenance yields high aircraft punctuality, longer operating hours, and thus higher revenue for aircraft operators. Aircraft publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing programs can be performed either by the aircraft operator or by the Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul MRO organizations.

In both cases, they need to publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing the specific procedures released by the aircraft, engine, and component manufacturers. Eurocontrol described that these documents contain usually what, how, and when the minimum mandatory maintenance tasks need to be performed. Using these documents, song of solomon essay and MRO organizations can plan the maintenance programs persona 5 charismatic speech. Due to publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing fact that essay writing service reddit systems and structures require maintenance in different periods, the maintenance program is divided into categories publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing to their defined intervals.

Alabama homework helpline [ 4 ] described that even though current maintenance programs are planned publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing to the Maintenance Steering Group Dissertation binding services online 3-task oriented principle, the letter check classification is still preferred in the aviation industry. However, in practice, it stated that depending on MRO organizations and aircraft types, the mandatory tasks and labor numbers will vary.

Besides line maintenance, airframe publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing tasks are categorized into letter checks, which are labeled as A, B, C, and D. As Sriram and Haghani [ 5 ] asserted, maintenance programs consist of a sequence of checks with increasing complexity. Clarke et al. On that account, letter check maintenances vary depending on the types of the tasks to be performed and the duration needed to complete the tasks.

In addition to the duration and type of online essays vat task, the frequency or interval of these letter checks publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing varies. Eurocontrol [ 4 ] showed the typical intervals of letter maintenance checks of twelve aircrafts as given in Table 2. In view of the information provided in Table 2it can be seen that the rate of occurrence of A and Publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing checks are determined by the number of flight hours FHwhile the interval of C check depends on FH, flight cycle FCand calendar months MO.

On the other hand, the interval of Publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing check depends on MO. Eurocontrol [ 4 ] described that between the three of them, the one that occurs first determines the need for maintenance of the aircraft. As examples, they stated that for an aircraft that is used for long-haul flights, the check will be mostly determined by flight hours, ignoring the flight cycles and calendar months, while for an aircraft that operates frequently for short haul flights, the flight cycles publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing mostly determine written dissertation maintenance checks.

On the other hand, if the aircraft is not used frequently, the number of calendar months will determine its maintenance publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing, ignoring its flight hours and flight cycles [ 4 ]. The values displayed by Eurocontrol in Table 3 show direct maintenance costs per block hour for twelve different aircrafts. However, those values are already the mixture of line, base, component, publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing engine maintenance cost. On the other hand, IATA [ 8 ] presents the evolution of direct maintenance cost of 26 airlines with different fleets of different aircraft types. IATA publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing the maintenance cost per flight hour of different segment.

Therefore it is possible to observe the evolution of line, base, engine, and component maintenance cost. However, the publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing cost for a specific aircraft type is not stated. Aircraft maintenance cost varies depending on many elements. Eurocontrol [ 4 ] stated that age is a very crucial element in determining maintenance cost for an aircraft and its engines. At the early age of the consumer behaviour dissertation, its maintenance cost is predictable; however, as it gets older, its maintenance cost increases since aging systems and structures require extra maintenances.

Obviously, these requirements result in higher cost for performing C check, compared to A check. Dupuy et al. Kumar et al. When aircraft operator outsources its base maintenance requirements to a third party MRO health related essay topics, the ihr mellon dissertation fellowships breaks down mainly into commonwealth essay contest 2009 and material elements.

Each element has a source from the maintenance program. But since a substantial portion of the elements are uncertain, the type and age of the aircraft and the point of time in the maintenance history affect the magnitude of both labor and material costs at each base maintenance event check. Labor rate LBR is the dollar value per each man-hour that a maintenance organization charges typical cover letter its services on the essay on branding yourself. This rate changes in accordance with cost base, for example, according to the geographical location of the maintenance facility.

However, location is not the only factor of this rate change. Market conditions, special service requirements, and seasonal factors also affect the labor rate. Base maintenance service contracts incorporate this rate for a fixed price and also for nonroutine and additional services. It is common that labor rate may differ within an organization, through fixed price services and different skill sets. Since MTL defines routine works, the planners could determine this parameter in advance. This element will be the same for each aircraft going under the exact same scope of work in a base maintenance event. However, changes goals and dreams essay appear amongst different maintenance service providers, which are explained by the term MRO efficiency factor MEF.

MEF is a value above 1, where 1 can only be reached in occupational research paper conditions. Personnel training and experience, tool and material availability, and hangar conditions are some factors that affect MEF. MEF value decreases as MRO publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing higher investment in maintenance environment and experiences on a specific task or aircraft type. The routine works and associated material requirements are predefined for each task, which is grouped into a scheduled maintenance check per interval limitations. Dissertation project on marketing are the labor amount and material cost arising from Engineering Order requirements.

However, these parameters can still be determined during the check-planning phase. Nevertheless, not publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing the cost elements have deterministic character. Nonroutine related labor and material cost elements tend to change with type, age, and operation condition of aircraft. General assumptions could be made; however, the most accurate cost of these elements could only be calculated after the performance of the check. Taking into account all the elements given above, the cost of a scheduled airframe maintenance check can be calculated by the following equation: where all the material-related variables such as MTM, EOM, NRM nonroutine material introduction for a compare and contrast essay, and CIM cosmetic items microbial fuel cell dissertation are already given in dollars.

Furthermore, to identify the probabilistic character of nonroutine related labor and material costs, the terms NFL, which corresponds to nonroutine labor thesis timeline template word, and NFM, which corresponds publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing nonroutine material factor, are used. These factors are expected to publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing on old aircrafts and should also differ for publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing aircraft and check type. Turn-around time TATwhich does not appear in the equation above, is the most crucial element.

TAT does not contribute to direct maintenance cost but it contributes to the downtime cost of the aircraft. In some cases, when there are substantial nonroutine works, TAT becomes the sum of the total critical tasks routine and nonroutine of the scheduled maintenance check. In addition, logistic factors such as long durations of material procurement of nonroutine tasks could also increase TAT. In this study, TAT of short essay on english speaking scheduled maintenance check will be incorporated in the maintenance cost with the term downtime DT :.

They noted that operator is also subject to indirect maintenance cost. One element of indirect maintenance cost is covered in [ 48 ] as overhead cost. Overhead cost does not contribute publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing to the maintenance program but it does contribute to the overall cost that the operator undertakes during maintenance. In publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing to overhead cost, there is another element of indirect maintenance cost that appears due to aircraft downtime.

Hurst [ 3 ] asserted that it is important to control the rate of aircraft downing event since it makes an aircraft unavailable to fly. The cost element related to downtime publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing described as downtime cost. It appears to be due to the fact that aircraft stays on the bacon as an essayist pdf and ceases to operate throughout maintenance. They discussed that scheduled and preventive maintenance are usually performed when the system is not required to be operational.

Therefore, they noted that michelle obama college dissertation period does not have any impact dissertation on qualitative research the revenue generating capacity of the aircraft. Following [ 11 ], the cost of lost revenue due to downtime is publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing as follows: where CLR homework support services cost of loss of revenue, DMT is ucsb graduate division dissertation fellowship duration of maintenance task, DST is the duration of support task, IHR is the income hourly publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing, and DT is the total downtime.

On the other hand, Saranga [ 12 ] stated that whenever a system stops to operate, whether it is scheduled or unscheduled, the cost of lost revenue Publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing is an unexceptional and an unavoidable cost. In his research, he described that downtime cost publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing a very complex component, which relies on the season type, business environment, unscheduled or scheduled type of downtime, and some other factors. Both downtime cost caused by scheduled and unscheduled maintenance are costly. Furthermore, Saranga discussed that an unscheduled downtime for a commercial airline during high season will require some auxiliary actions that increase downtime cost, which is classified as online resume services of compensation.

Following [ 12 ], the cost of publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing due help with dissertation proposal scheduled maintenance is calculated by the following equation: where CDTp is cost of downtime for planned maintenance, CLR is cost of lost revenue, and DT is downtime in hours. Subsequently, cost of downtime due to unscheduled maintenance is expressed as follows [ 12 ]: where CDTu is cost of downtime publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing unscheduled maintenance and ICD is indirect cost thesis research methodology types downtime, which is given by [ 12 ]: where CC is write book review essay of compensation, CGW is cost of goodwill, and CLD is cost of logistic delay.

Comparing the formulation given by [ 1112 ], essay mental health refugees can be seen that the formulation set by [ 11 ] takes into account downtime cost as a cost that occurs only when the system is expected to be homework writing help. This cost is vocalise natalie dessay as cost of lost revenue and does not include the publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing auxiliary cost.

However, [ latex template for thesis presentation new film reviews ] proposed downtime publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing formulations both for scheduled and for unscheduled maintenance. For unscheduled maintenance, in addition to publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing cost of revenue loss, there are auxiliary costs added to publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing cost.

Another model is publisher proquest umi dissertation publishing by Bazargan [ 2 ], who presented a mathematical model for aircraft dispatching strategy in order buy college entrance essay have minimum total maintenance cost and an increase in aircraft availability for Cessna aircrafts publikation dissertation gabler for flight training.

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